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Example of a Computer Systems Research Paper
Von Neumann architecture is an influential and early type of computing configuration. It majorly constituted by memory chips that have the ability to process and hold data at the same time. Every chip has the capability of multi-tasking based on how the operation executed before it affects it. According to this architecture, every computer has mechanisms of input and output, memory, central control, external storage and a place for central arithmetic. Computers that use Von Neumann architecture are referred to as stored-program meaning the computers do not require either external switches or any other influences so as to run. For these computers, all data and instructions are stored in the RAM (Random Access Memory).
The design model for stored-program digital computer used a single separate structure and a processing unit to hold both data and instructions. “The design is such that there is one shared memory for program (instructions) and data having one address bus and one data bus between memory and processor”,(Astrom &Wittenmark, 2011). Data and instructions have to be fetched in sequential order. This is referred to as Von Neumann Bottleneck and it limits the operation bandwidth. This type of design is much simpler compared to the Harvard architecture and is mostly used to interface to external memory. It has been incredibly successful with many modern computers using the idea. The CPU chip of many PCs hold an arithmetic logic unit and a control unit( together with some local memory) and their main memory is usually designed in the form of RAM stick and are situated on the mother board.
A computer system comprises of CPU (central processing unit) that is responsible for processing data, multiple output and input devices, and main memory that stores the data that is being processed. A reliable connection is very crucial for the various components to be connected to each other in order to permit efficient data transfer. Therefore, a computer system has computer bus which is a subsystem of the computer that is responsible for making the transfers happen. A computer bus is responsible for transferring data the various components of a computer system. Actual cables were used in carrying out transfers in ancient computer systems. Cables are still being used even in the present day computers, especially when connecting external devices. Universal Serial Bus (USB) is the most common type of this kind of connection. Several peripheral devices such as mice, scanners, printers and external hard disks use a USB connection. Though cables can be used for transferring data between internal components of a computer, integrated electronic circuits such as those used on the mother board have replaced them. “The technique of using buses in computer system improves modularity and reduces cost significantly”, (Polson & Richardson, 2013).
Boolean logic is a subset of algebra that is used to come up with true or false statements. The expressions make use of the operators OR, AND, NOT, and XOR in comparing values then returning True or False results. For example:
- Y and x- return true if y and x are true; return false if either y or x are false.
- X or y- return True if either y or x, or both y and x are true; return False in case both y and x are both false.
- Not x- return true in case x is null or false; return False in case x is false.
- Y XOR x- return true if y or x is true; return s false in case y and x are either false or true.
The most commonly used operators are OR and AND. The AND operation demands that if and only if all the inputs are on can the output be on. In case any of the inputs is off, then the output will be off. On the other hand, the OR operation stipulates that if either of the inputs is on, then the output qualifies to be on. Truth tables are often used to all the combinations.
Computer logic can always be expressed in Boolean terms since computers operate in binary. For instance, every false statement returns a value of 0 while a true statement returns a value of 1. Since most calculations need than just a simple true or false statement, computer processors carry out complex mathematical calculations by linking multiple Boolean or binary statements together. Complex expressions in Boolean form can be expressed in form of logic gates.
A typical computer has four different kinds of memory: normal system Random Access Memory, Level 1 and level 2 caches, a hard disk and virtual memory. Modern computers have both L1 and L2 caches. Many currently have L3 cache. Caching is a very crucial computer-science procedure which appears on every computer device in different forms. There are hardware and software disk caches, memory caches, page caches and many more. Virtual memory is a form of caching. Virtual memory is a common aspect of many operating systems that provides big benefits for users at very low cost. Virtual memory looks at RAM for areas which have not been used recently and then copy them to the hard disk in order to permit running of more programs once the RAM is filled up. Random access memory (RAM) is considered random access since any memory cell can be accessed directly provided one knows the column and row that intersect the specific cell. “The hard disk stores data and changing digital information in a more permanent form. In addition, they also give computers the ability to remember information in case power goes off”, (Tenenbaum&Austine, 2011).
There are three main classes of data storage in computer systems: The Primary storage, Secondary storage and Tertiary storage. The primary storage(also called the main storage) is used for the immediate access of information and data by the processor and is in-built in the computer. The primary storage consists of Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read Only Memory (ROM). There are two types of RAM: The Static RAM (SRAM) and Dynamic RAM (DRAM). The cache is a type of RAM that was originally designed to be a temporary storage mechanism to be used in redirection of previously manipulated information by the machine or the user. The concept of cache has eventually evolved to become a permanent as well as a temporary form of computer storage as well as for individual applications. The secondary storage on the other hand consists of storage devices that are external to the basic in-built storage of the computer processor. They are used in building more space for the computer and they can never be changed. They include: hard drives, blue-ray discs, compact disks, digital versatile discs (DVD), and flash memory. Tertiary storage consists of devices that are removable from the computer and they include: USB flash drives, smart cards, and external hard drives
Åström, K. J., &Wittenmark, B. (2011).Computer-controlled systems: theory and design. Courier Dover Publications.
Mariantoni, M. (2012, February).The photon shell game and the quantum von Neumann architecture with superconducting circuits. In APS March Meeting Abstracts (Vol. 1, p. 3004).
Polson, M. C., & Richardson, J. J. (Eds.).(2013). Foundations of intelligent tutoring systems.Psychology Press.
Rauzy, A. B. (2011). Sequence algebra, sequence decision diagrams and dynamic fault trees.Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 96(7), 785-792.
Ricci, F., Rokach, L., &Shapira, B. (2011).Introduction to recommender systems handbook (pp. 1-35).Springer US.
Silberschatz, A., Galvin, P. B., & Gagne, G. (2013).Operating system concepts (Vol. 8).Wiley.
Tanenbaum, A. S., Austin, T., &Chandavarkar, B. R. (2013).Structured computer organization. Pearson.